نقش نظام ارزیابی عملکرد در بروز پدیدۀ ریاکاری سازمانی: اثر تعدیل‌کنندگی جو سازمانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار دانشکده اقتصاد مدیریت و علوم اداری دانشگاه سمنان

2 دانشجوی دکتری دانشکده اقتصاد مدیریت و علوم اداری دانشگاه سمنان ایران

3 دانشجوی دکترای دانشکده اقتصاد مدیریت و علوم اداری دانشگاه سمنان ایران

چکیده

باتوجه‌به رایج‌شدن پدیدۀ غیراخلاقی ریاکاری کارکنان در سازمان­های دولتی، این پژوهش، با هدف بررسی نقش نظام ارزیابی عملکرد اثربخش در بروز این پدیده، در شرکت پتروشیمی استان ایلام انجام شد. پژوهش حاضر ازنظر هدف، کاربردی و ازنظر شیوۀ گردآوری اطلاعات تحقیق، توصیفی- پیمایشی و از نوع همبستگی و مبتنی بر مدل معادلات ساختاری است. جامعۀ آماری تحقیق شامل کلیۀ کارکنان شرکت پتروشیمی استان ایلام است که تعداد آنها 600 نفر هستند. باتوجه‌به جدول مورگان تعداد 234 نفر به‌عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. روش نمونه­گیری در این تحقیق نمونه­گیری تصادفی ساده و ابزار گردآوری اطلاعات نیز پرسشنامه است. درنهایت نتیجه­ای که از تجزیه‌و‌تحلیل داده­ها به دست آمد، این بود که نظام ارزیابی عملکرد اثربخش بر ریاکاری سازمانی، تأثیر مستقیم و منفی دارد، درحقیقت هرچه نظام ارزیابی، اثربخش­تر باشد ریاکاری در سازمان کمتر می‌شود و جو حاکم بر سازمان، جو همکارانه یا نوآورانه، نیز این اثر را تعدیل می­کند، به این صورت که جو همکارانه و نوآورانه تأثیری مثبت بر رابطه نظام ارزیابی عملکرد و ریاکاری دارد و اثر آن را شدت می‌بخشد، اینگونه که باعث افزایش تأثیر نظام ارزیابی عملکرد بر ریاکاری سازمانی و درنتیجه کاهش بیشتر ریاکاری می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


هادوی‌نژاد، مصطفی؛ دانایی‌فرد، حسن؛ آذر، عادل و خائف الهی، احمدعلی (1392)، رفتارهای منافقانه در ارتباطات بین‌فردی سازمان، چشم‌انداز مدیریت دولتی، شمارۀ 13: 40-15.

Bandiera, O., Barankai, I. & Rasul, I. (2009). Social connections and incentives in the workplace: evidence from personnel data, Econometrica 77(4), 1047-1094.

Barden, J., Rucker, D. D. & Petty, R. E. (2005). Saying one thing and doing another: Examining the impact of event order on hypocrisy judgments of others, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1463-1474.

Batson, C. D. (2014). Are the Principles in his nature, which interest him in the fortune of others, moral? In H. Putnam, S. Neiman, & J. P. Schloss (Eds.), Understanding moral sentiments: Darwinian Perspectives? (pp. 43–58). New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.

Byrne, D., Clore, G. & Worchel, P. (1966). The effect of economic similarity - dissimilarity on interpersonal attraction, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol, 4, 220-224.

Cha, S. & Edmondson, A. (2006). When values backfire: Leadership, attribution, and disenchantment in a values-driven organization, The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 57-78.

Cho, Y. J. & Sai, N. (2013). Does organizational justice matter in the federal workplace? Review of Public Personnel Administration, 33, 227-251.

Cook, M. (1995). Performance appraisal and true performance, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 10(7), 3-7.

Cropanzano, R., Byrne, Z. S., Bobocel, D. R. & Rupp, D. E. (2001). Self-enhancement biases, laboratory experiment, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, and the increasingly crowded world of organizational justice, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58, 260-272.

Dana, J., Weber, R. A. & Kuang, J. X. (2007). Exploiting moral wiggle room: Experiments demonstrating an illusory preference for fairness, Economic Theory, 33, 67–80.

De Cremer, D., Van Dick, R., Tenbrunsel, A., Pillutla, M. & Murnighan, J. K. (2011). Understand­ing ethical behavior and decision making in management: A behavioral business ethics ap­proach, British Journal of Management, 22(1), 1–4.

Deming, W.E. (2000). Out of the Crisis, MIT Centre for Advanced Educational Services, MA.

Dickson, M.W., Resick, CJ. & Hanges, P.J. (2004). When organizational climate is unambiguous, It is also strong, Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(2), 351-364

Dirks, K. & Ferrin, D. (2002). Trust in leadership: Meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice, Journal of AppliedPsychology, 87, 611-28.

Dutcher, E.G. (2011). How Does the Social Distance Between an Employee and a Manager Affect Employee Competition for a Reward? Mimeo. University of Innsbruck

Frimann, S. (2004). I sauna med chefen? (u)muligheder I medarbejderudviklings-samtalen, In the sauna with the boss? (Im)possibilities in employee performance appraisals]”, in Jordan, P., Lloyd, C. and Jones, N. (2002), Staff Management in Library and Information Work, 4th ed., Ashgate, Aldershot

Hoegl, M., Parboteeah., K.P. & Munson, C.L. (2003). Team-level antecedents of individuals’ knowledge networks, DECISIONSCI, 34(4), 741–770.

 

James, R., Harrington, L. & Ji, H.L. (2015). What Drives Perceived Fairness of Performance Appraisal? Exploring the Effects of Psychological Contract Fulfillment on Employees’ Perceived Fairness of Performance Appraisal in U.S. Federal Agencies, Public Personnel Management, 44(2), 214– 238.

Janz, B.D. & Prasarnphanich, P. (2003). Understanding the antecedents of effective knowledge management: The importance of a knowledge-centered culture, DECISION SCI, 34(2), 351–384.

Jaw, BS. & Liu, W. (2003). Promoting organizational learning and self-renewal in Taiwanese companies: The role of HRM, Human Resource Management, 42(3), 223 241.

Kim, S. E. & Rubianty, D. (2011). Perceived fairness of performance appraisals in the federal government: Does it matter? Review of Public Personnel Administration, 31, 329-348.

Krats, P. & Brown, T. C. (2013). Unionised employee’s reactions to the introduction of a goalbased performance appraisal system, Human Resource Management Journal, 23, 396-412.

Kwaku, A.G. & Sakyi, M.B. (2015).Performance appraisal systems in academic and research libraries in Ghana: a survey, Library Review, 64, 58 – 81.

Lammers, J., Stapel, D.A. & Galinsky, A.D. (2010). Power increases hypocrisy: Moralizing in reasoning, immorality in behavior, Psychological Science, 21, 737–744.

Larry, M., Coutts, F. & Schneider, W. (2004). Police officer performance appraisal systems policing, An international journal of police strategies & Management, 27(1), 67-81

Law, D.R. (2007). Appraising performance appraisals: a critical look at external control techniques, International Journal of Reality Therapy, 16(2), 18-25.

Lee, S. & Hong, J. H. (2011). Does family-friendly policy matter? Testing its impact on turnover and performance. Public Administration Review, 71, 870-879.

Lin, K.J. & Chang, S.H. (2009). A service accountability framework for QoS service management and engineering, Inf Syst E-Bus Manage, 7, 429–446.

Lönnqvist, J,E., Michael, R. & Walkowitz, G. (2015). On why hypocrisy thrives: Reasonable doubt created by moral posturing can deter punishment, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 59, 139–145.

Maley, J. F. (2009). The influence of performance appraisal on the psychological contract ofbthe inpatriate manager, South African Journal of Human Resource Management, 7, 1-10.

McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L. & Cook, J.M., (2001).Birds of a feather: homophily in social networks, Annu. Rev. Sociol, 27, 415-444.

Monji, L. & Ortlepp, K. (2011). The Relationship between Organizational Trust, Job Satisfaction and Intention to Leave: An Exploratory Study, Alternation. 18(1), 192 – 214

Mulvaney, M.A., McKinney, W.R. & Grodsky, R. (2008). The development of a pay-forperformance appraisal system for public park and recreation agencies: a case study, Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 26(4), 126-156.

Nadi, M. A. & Moshfeghi, N. (2009). Recognizing perception of teachers from relationships of organizational trust dimensions with continuance & emotional commitment for producing a proper structural equation modeling in Isfahan training & Education, Quarterly Journal of Educational, 6, 21-38. (In persion)

Neal, A. & Hesketh, B. (2001). Productivity in Organization. Handbook of industrial work & organizational Psychology. London: Sage Publication.

Öz, B., ÖzkanT. & LajunenT. (2010). An investigation of the relationship between organizational climate and professional drivers driver behaviours, SAFETY SCI, 48(10):1484- 1489.

Phillippe, TW. & Koehler, JW. (2005). A Factor Analytical Study of Perceived Organizational Hypocrisy, SAM Advanced Management Journal, 70(2), 13-20.

Pillutla, M. M. (2011). When good people do wrong: Morality, social identity, and ethical behavior. In D. De Cremer, R. van Dick, & J. K. Murnighan (Eds.), Social psychology and organizations. New York: Routledge.

Powell, C. A. & Smith, R. H. (2013). Schadenfreude caused by the exposure

 of hypocrisy in others, Self and Identity, 12, 413–431.

Rubin, E. V. (2011). Appraising performance appraisal systems inthe federal government: A literature review, preliminary findings, and prospects for future research. Paper presented at the Public Management Research Conference, Syracuse University, NY.

Roberts, G.E. (2003). Employee Performance Appraisal System Participation: A Technique that Works, Public Personnel Management, 32(1), 89-98. Salleh, M., Amin, A., Muda, S. & Halim, M. A. S. A. (2013). Fairness of performance appraisal and organizational commitment, Asian Social Science, 9, 121-128.

Shalvi, S., Dana, J., Handgraaf, M. J. & De Dreu, C. K. (2011). Justified ethicality: Observing desired counterfactuals modifies ethical perceptions and behavior, OrganizationalBehavior and Human Decision Processes, 115, 181–190.

Sholihin, M. & Pike, R. (2013). Investigating the determinants of perceived procedural fairness in performance evaluation, Journal of Applied Management Accounting Research, 11, 29-42.

Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) (2010), Resource Curriculum: An Integrated Approach to Human Resource Education, Society for Human Resource Management, Alexandria, VA.

Tan, H. & Tan, C. (2000). Toward the differentiation of trust in supervisor and trust in organization, Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 126, 241-60.

Waal, A.D. (2007), Strategic Performance Management: A Managerial and Behavioural Approach, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, NY.

Westphal, J.D. & Stern, I. (2006). The other pathway to the boardroom: interpersonal influence behavior as a substitute for elite credentials and majority status

Weyland, A. (2011). Engagement and talent management of geny, Industrial and CommercialTraining, 43(7), 439-445.

Zhong, C. B., Bohns, V. K. & Gino, F. (2010). Good lamps are the best police: Darkness increases dishonesty and self-interested behavior, Psychological Science, 21, 311–314.