Psychological Capital and Ethical Work Climate Effects on Employees’ Service Behavior: Evidence from Iran

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


دانشکده اقتصاد، مدیریت و علوم اداری دانشگاه سمنان


Research on the psychological drivers affecting employees’ work engagement is insignificant and scare. Psychological capital and ethical work climate are two important of those drivers that their impact on work engagement haven’t been investigated yet. The aim of this study is to investigate psychological capital and ethical work climate effect on employees’ service behavior by the mediating role of employees’ work engagement. The statistical population of this study includes 7000 employees of National Iranian Oil Product Distribution Company. 394 employees were the minimum sample which their data were collected from 397 employees by questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used to data analysis. Results showed that psychological capital and ethical work climate have direct and significant effect on employees’ work engagement. Also results showed their effects on service behavior. Finally, work engagement effect on employees’ service behavior was confirmed. Managers by improving employees’ work engagement can have significant effect on employees’ service performance and employees by providing high quality services can quarantine customers satisfaction, benefit for stakeholders and business survive. Managers and business owners especially in service sector can improve work engagement through creating and developing ethical climate in business and through emphasizing on workers psychological derivers by education.



Alessandri, G., Cosiglio, C., Luthans, F., & Borgogni, L. (2018). Testing a dynamic model of the impact of psychological capital on work engagement and job performance. Career Development International, 23(1), 33-47. Alhelalat, J. A., Habiballah, M. A., & Twaissi, N. M. (2017). The impact of personal and functional aspects of restaurant employee service behaviour on customer satisfaction. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 66, 46–53. Ambrose, M. L., Arnaud, A., & Schminke, M. (2008). Individual moral development and ethical climate: the influence of person–organization fit on job attitudes. Journal of Business Ethics, 77(3), 323–333. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411-423. Avey, J. B., Wernsing, T. S., & Luthans, F. (2008). Can positive employees help positive organizational change? Impact of psychological capital and emotions on relevant attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavior Science, 44(1), 48-70. Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. M. (2010). The additive value of positive psychological capital in predicting work attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Management, 36(2), 430–452. Baba, V. V., Tourigny, L., Wang, X., & Liu, W. (2009). Proactive personality and work performance in China: the moderating effects of emotional exhaustion and perceived safety climate. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 26 (1), 23–37. Bettencourt, L. A., & Brown, S. W. (1997). Contact employees: relationships among workplace fairness, job satisfaction and prosocial service behaviors. Journal of Retailing, 73(1), 39–61. Boley, B. B., Jordan, J. E., Kline, C., & Knollenberg, W. (2018). Social return and intend to travel. Tourism Management, 64, 119–128. Brandeth, K. R., Gomes, J., & Boyanova, D. (2011). Personality and psychological capital as indicators of future job success? A multicultural comparison between three European countries. Journal of Business Economics, 3(11), 263-289. Cameron, K. S., & Spreitzer, G. M. (2011). Introduction: what is positive about positive organizational scholarship? In: Cameron, K.S., Spreitzer, G.M. (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Positive Organizational Scholarship. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 56–69. Chaurasia, S., & Shukla, A. (2014). Psychological capital, LMX, employee engagement and work role performance. The Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 50(2), 342–357. Cheng, T. M., Hong, C. Y., & Yang, B. C. (2018). Examining the moderating effects of service climate on psychological capital, work engagement, and service behavior among flight attendants. Journal of Air Transport Management, 67, 94–102. Dickson, M. W., Smith, D. B., Grojean, M. W., & Ehrhart, M. (2001). An organizational climate regarding ethics: the outcome of leader values and the practices that reflect them. Leadership Quarterly, 12(2), 197–217. Estiri, M., Nargesian, A., Daspish, F., & Sharifi, S. M. (2016). The impact of psychological capital on mental health among Iranian nurses: considering the mediating role of job burnout. Springer Plus, 5, 1377. Farrell, A. M., Souchon, A. L., & Durden, G. R. (2001). Service encounter conceptualization: employees' service behaviours and customers' service quality perceptions. Journal of Marketing Management, 17(5–6), 577–593. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50. Ghadiri, M., Beshlideh, K., Hashemi Shykhshabani, S., & Moshkelani, F. (2013). The relationship of ethical climate with job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention in employees of a governmental company. Ethics in Science and Technology, 8(2), 17-25. (In Persian) Ghalavandi, H., & Moradi. Z. (2015). Analysis of the Relationship between Ethical Climate of the Organization, Organizational Identity and Organizational Silence. Ethics in science and Technology, 10(2), 64-72. (In Persian) Golparvar, M., Jafari, M., & Javadian, Z. (2013). Prediction of Psychological Capital through Components of Spirituality among Nurses. Iranian Journal of Psychiatric Nursing, 1(3), 35-44. (In Persian) Gotsis, G. N., & Kortezi, Z. (2010). Ethical considerations in organizational politics: expanding the perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 93(4), 497–517. Hafer., J. C, & Martin T. N. (2006). Job involvement or affective commitment: A sensitivity analysis study of apathetic employee mobility. Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, 8(1), 2-19. Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis: A Global Perspective. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Pearson Halbesleben, J. R., & Wheeler, A. R. (2008). The relative roles of engagement and embeddedness in predicting job performance and intention to leave. Work and Stress, 22(3), 242–256. Jung, H. S., & Yoon, H. H. (2015). The impact of employees’ positive psychological capital on job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior in the hotel. International Journal of Contemporary hospitality Management, 27(6), 1135-1156. Kang, H. J., & Busser, J. A. (2018). Impact of service climate and psychological capital on employee engagement: The role of organizational hierarchy. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 75, 1-9. Karatepe, O. M., & Avci, T. (2017). The effects of psychological capital and work engagement on nurses’ lateness attitude and turnover intentions. Journal of Management Development, 36(8), 1029-1039. Karatepe, O. M., & Ngeche, R. N. (2012). Does job embeddedness mediate the effect of work engagement on job outcomes? A study of hotel employees in Cameroon. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 21(4), 440–461. Karatepe, O. M., & Talebzadeh, N. (2016). An empirical investigation of psychological capital among flight attendants. Journal of Air Transport Management. 55, 193–202. Karatepe, O. M., & Karadas, G. (2015). Do psychological capital and work engagement foster frontline employees’ satisfaction? A study in the hotel industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(6), 1254–1278. Khanifar, H., Moghimi, S. M., Jandaghi, G., & Zarvandy, N. (2009). Analysis of Relation between Elements of Trust and Organizational Commitment of Personnel (social welfare organization of Qom state and education organization of Qom state). Journal of Public Administration, 1(2), 3-18. (In Persian) Khoshouei, M. S., & Bahrami, M. (2014). The role of psychological empowerment and organizational commitment in teachers’ job burnout. Journal of School Psychology, 3(1), 37-54. (In Persian) Lambert, E. G., & Paoline, E. A. (2012), Exploring potential antecedents of job involvement an exploratory study among jail staff. Criminal Justice and Behavior. 39(3), 264-86. Lau, P. Y. Y., Tong, J. L. Y. T., Lien, B. Y. H., Hsu, Y. C., & Chong, C. L. (2017). Ethical work climate, employee commitment and proactive customer service performance: Test of the mediating effects of organizational politics. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 35, 20-26. Lee, J., & Ok, C. (2015). Drivers of work engagement: an examination of core self-evaluations and psychological climate among hotel employees. International Journal of hospitality Management, 44, 84–98. Liao, S. S., Hu, D. C., Chung, Y. C., & Chen, L. W. (2017). LMX and employee satisfaction: mediating effect of psychological capital. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 38(3), 433-449. Limpanitgul, T., Jirotmontree, A., Robson, M.J., & Boonchoo, P. (2013). Job attitudes and prosocial service behavior: a test of the moderating role of organizational culture. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20, 5–12. Liu, Y., & Yang, J. (2007). Server emotional experiences and affective service delivery: mechanisms linking climate for service and customer outcomes. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 9(2–3), 127–150. Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. M. (2004). Human, social, and now positive psychological capital management: Investing in people for competitive advantage. Organizational Dynamics, 33(2), 143-160. Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avey, J. B., & Norman, S. M. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60, 541-572. Macey, W. H., Schneider, B., Barbera, K., & Young, S. A. (2009). Employee Engagement: Tools for Analysis, Practice, and Competitive Advantage. Wiley Blackwell, London, England. Mirkamali, S. M., & Namdari Pejman, M. (2016). The Role of Negotiation Approaches and Organizational Trust on Job Involvement in Hamadan Middle Industry Staffs. Organizational Behavior Studies Quarterly, 4(1), 123-145. (In Persian) Montakhab Yegane, M., Arshadi, N., & Nisi. A. (2015). Designing Ethical Behavior Model of Employees with Emphasis on the Role of Ethical Values of Organization. Ethics in science and Technology, 10(1), 9-18. (In Persian) Mulki, J. P., Jaramillo, J. F., & Locander, W. B. (2008). Effect of ethical climate on turnover intention: linking attitudinal and stress theory. Journal of Business Ethics, 78, 559–574. Paek, S., Schuckert, M., Kim, T. T., & Lee, G. (2015). Why is hospitality employees’ psychological capital important? The effects of psychological capital on work engagement and employee morale. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 50, 9–26. Pan, X., Mao, T, Zhang, J., Wang, J., & Su, P. (2017). Psychological capital mediates the association between nurses’ practice environment and work engagement among Chinese male nurses. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 4, 378-383. Panahi, E., & Fatehi Zadeh, M. S. (2015). Studying the Relationship between Factors of Psychological Capital and Marital Life Quality among Couples of Isfahan. Quarterly Journal of Woman and Society, 6(23), 41-58. (In Persian) Park, J., & Gursoy, D. (2012). Generation effects on work engagement among U.S. hotel employees. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(4), 1195–1202. Rahiminia, F., & Nikkhah Farkhani, Z. (2012). The effect of ethical climate on organizational identity and turnover intentions among salespeople. Ethics in Science and Technology, 6(4), 71-81. (In Persian) Rothbard, N. P., & Patil, S. V. (2011). Being there: work engagement and positive organizational scholarship. In: Cameron, K.S., Spreitzer, G.M. (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Positive Organizational Scholarship. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 56–69. Saeed, Y., Tabanejad, Z., Nehrir, B., Ebadi, A., Khoshab, H., & Babajani, S. (2015). The relationship between job involvement and demographic characteristics in nurses in hospitals of Tehran and Kerman in 2013. Journal of Clinical Nursing and Midwifery, 3(4), 39-46. (In Persian) Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Management Psychology, 21(7), 600–619. Salanova, M., Agut, S., & Peiró, J. M. (2005). Linking organizational resources and work engagement to employee performance and customer loyalty: the mediation of service climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1217–1227. Salari, M., & Mazyari, M. (2016). The Effect of Organizational Structure on Job Involvement in Employees of Sport and Youth General Offices: The Mediating Role of Psychological Empowerment. Journal of Sport Management, 8(2), 281-297. (In Persian) Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., Gonzalez-Roma, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: a two-sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(1), 71–92. Schneider, B., Ehrhart, M. G., & Macey, W. H. (2013). Organizational climate and culture. Annual Review of Psychology, 64, 361–388. Schneider, B., White, S. S., & Paul, M. C. (1998). Linking service climate and customer perceptions of service quality: test of a causal model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(2), 150–163. Sharifi, N. S., & Shahtalebi, B. (2015). Investigation of the Relationship between Dimension of Psychological Capital with Organizational Commitment and Job Performance. Social Welfare, 15(59), 148-119. (In Persian) Sherill., D. W. (2008). An exploratory study of ethical climate perceptions of the banking industry in the charlotte. [PhD Thesis]. North Carolina Region: University of Capella Siu, O. L., Hui, C. H., Phillips, D. R., Lin, L., Wong, T. W., & Shi, K., (2009). A study of resiliency among Chinese health care workers: Capacity to copy with workplace stress. Journal of Research Perspective, 5(43), 770-776. Smith, A., & Hume, E. C. (2005). Linking culture and ethics: a comparison of accountants’ ethical belief systems in the individualism/collectivism and power distance contexts. Journal of Business Ethics, 62(3), 209–220. Sowinski, D. R., Fortmann, K. A., & Lezotte, D. V. (2008). Climate for service and the moderating effects of climate strength on customer satisfaction, voluntary turnover, and profitability. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17(1), 73–88. Stewart., R. W. (2011). You support diversity, but are you ethical? Examining the interactive effects of diversity and ethical climate perceptions on turnover intentions. Journal of Business Ethics, 99, 453-465. Tsaur, S. H., & Lin, Y. C. (2004). Promoting service quality in tourist hotels: the role of practices and service behavior. Tourism Management, 25(4), 471–481. Unal, O. F. (2012). Relationship between organizational commitment and ethical climate: the mediating role of job satisfaction dimensions. Journal of WEI Business and Economics, 1, 92-105. Victor, B, & Cullen J. B. (1987). A theory and measure of ethical climate in organizations. Research in Corporate Social Performance and Policy, 9, 51-71. Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2007). Citizens' perceptions of politics and ethics in public administration: a five-year national study of their relationship to satisfaction with services, trust in governance, and voice orientations. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 17(2), 285–305. Walumbwa, F. O., Peterson, S. J., Avolio, B. J., & Hartnell, C. A. (2010). An investigation of the relationships among leader and follower psychological capital, service climate, and job performance. Personnel Psychology, 63(4), 937–963. Xanthopoulou, D., Baker, A. B., Heuven, E., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2008). Working in the sky: a diary study on work engagement among flight attendants. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13(4), 345-356. Yeh, C. W. (2012). Relationships among service climate, psychological contract, work engagement and service performance. Journal of Air Transport Management, 25, 67–70. Yoosefi, N., Nasiri Hanis, G., & Jafari, M. (2019). Investigating the relationship between organizational climate, occupational stress and job involvement with psychological and spiritual health of prison staff in Kurdistan. Organizational Behavior Studies Quarterly, 7(4), 281-316. (In Persian) Youssef, C. M., & Luthans, F. (2011). Psychological capital: meaning, findings, and future directions. In: Cameron, K. S., Spreitzer, G. M. (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Positive Organizational Scholarship. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 56–69. Yun, S., & Kang, J. (2018). Influencing factors and consequence of workplace bullying among nurses: A structural equation modeling. Asian Nursing Research, 12, 26-33.